As with many of the scenes depicted in the Dance of Death, this one has a moralistic component, in addition to being a reminder of how fleeting life is.
Here we see a rich and powerful duke, surrounded by his courtiers. He is approached by a beggar woman with a small child who begs him for some charity, but the duke turns away from her in disgust. Meanwhile, Death who is crowned with leaves - perhaps an allusion to the wilting and passing nature of worldly power - suddenly seizes the Duke.
Next: The Bishop
Next: The Abbott
Holbein - the Dance of Death.