Even as the preacher stands before the congregation, Death stands behind him holding a jaw bone, as a symbol that death is the better preacher of the two. The jawbone is an allusion to the preacher's talent as an orator, and a reminder that behind the mouth lies the sskeleton of death. The preacher, a man of God, is not immune to the judgment of death, which comes for all men.
Meanwhile the preacher's audience listens in rapt attention. However their adoration will not save the preacher. There is an hourglass behind the preacher, symbolzing the passage of time, which is an allegorical meaning within the larger allegory.
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Holbein - the Dance of Death.